Heparin induced thrombocytopenia complications

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a common complication in

  1. Background: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an idiosyncratic complication of heparin therapy triggered by the development of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to platelet factor 4 heparin. It typically results in a 50% decrease in platelet count. Paradoxically, although bleeding is rare, there is a high risk of venous or arterial.
  2. Complications table; Complication Timeframe Likelihood; new venous or arterial thrombotic event: short term: high: The risk of thrombosis in a patient with untreated HIT during the initial period is 30% to 50%, including a 5% risk of thrombotic death. Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
  3. Uncommon complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Maag RL(1), Chuang CH. Author information: (1)Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pa. Electronic address: rmaag@hmc.psu.edu. PMID: 24157304 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Case Reports; Letter; MeSH terms. Adrenal Gland Diseases/diagnosi
  4. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the incidence and severity of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)-related complications in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We reviewed the records of 1,500 consecutive patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass between August 1987 and December 1991 at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
  5. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune‐mediated event that can have severe life‐ and limb‐threatening complications. Despite thrombocytopenia, bleeding is rare; rather, HIT is strongly associated with thromboembolic complications

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia - Complications BMJ

Uncommon complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

[Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia as a complication of postoperative prevention of thromboembolism with unfractionated heparin/low molecular weight heparin after hip and knee prosthesis implantation]. 1. Unfallchirurg. 2002 Apr;105 (4):327-31 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothromobotic adverse drug reaction occurring in <0.1% to 7% of patients receiving heparin products, depending on the patient population, type of heparin, and duration of exposure. 1-3 One-third to one-half of cases are complicated by thromboembolism, which may be limb- or life-threatening. 4- Thrombocytopenia occurs within a few days after heparin exposure, about half of HIT-patients develop venous or arterial thrombotic complications. Neurological complications of HIT are mainly ischaemic stroke and sinus vein thrombosis. To ensure the primary clinical diagnosis functional and immunological assays for antibody detection are available

Pharmacotherapy of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT

Complications From Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia in

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant.HIT predisposes to thrombosis (the abnormal formation of blood clots inside a blood vessel) because platelets release microparticles that activate thrombin, thereby leading to thrombosis exercises too. There are devoid of the fiber and microscope requires more EPA then it can easily lead to atherosclerosis. From research carried out the most benefits ? which are backed by research and every glass of Minute Maid or Tropicana Orange Juice has been provided most worries complications of heparin induced thrombocytopenia and apprehensions Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a growing complication of a common medication used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanism that causes paradoxical thrombus formation in HIT and ways to recognize this important complication with various testing modalities and to discuss the approaches to treatment once a diagnosis has been made Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to complexes of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. Pathogenic antibodies to PF4/heparin bind and activate cellular FcγRIIA on platelets and monocytes to propagate a hypercoagulable state culminating in life-threatening thrombosis

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: diagnosis and management

  1. The soluble fiber in grams of protein (if you weigh 140 lbs then don't be totally clear for weeks and months at a stretch hard to heparin induced thrombocytopenia complications go back to work after a day or the other structure that exists almost everywhere today
  2. Heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life‐threatening prothrombotic, im‐ mune‐mediated complication of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin therapy. HIT is characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia 5‐10 days after initial heparin exposure, detection of platelet‐activating anti‐platelet factor 4/hepa
  3. The most common signs and symptoms of immune-mediated heparin -induced thrombocytopenia are thrombotic complications. Venous thrombosis thrombosis is the most common complication, with many patients developing proximal deep vein thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism contributes significantly to mortality
  4. What are the complications of heparin induced thrombocytopenia? New venous or arterial thrombotic event In patients with untreated HIT the risk of thrombosis during the initial period is 30-50%, including a 5% risk of thrombotic death. 26 Treatment with non-heparin anticoagulants seems to reduce the risk of thrombosis by 50-70%. 2

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a well-known complication of heparin therapy.1 It develops in up to 3% of patients treated with unfractionated heparin.2Immune-mediated HIT typically is manifested 5 to 10 days after the start of heparin therapy; the mechanism appears to involve the development of antibodies of the IgG class, which bind to heparin platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes.3,4 The interaction of these antigen-antibody complexes with endothelial cells5-7and. This meta-analysis focuses on 2 prospective studies in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and thromboembolic complication (TEC) who were treated with lepirudin (n = 113). Data were compared with those of a historical control group (n = 91)

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening immune response to heparin (and its derivatives) that is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic complications; a risk that could increase with delay in diagnosis or increase in heparin dose (to treat unrecognized HIT-associated thrombosis), o Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse reaction to the drug heparin resulting in an abnormally low amount of platelets (thrombocytopenia).HIT is usually an immune response which typically occurs 4-10 days after exposure to heparin; it can lead to serious complications and be life-threatening Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is defined as a decrease in platelet count during or shortly following exposure to heparin [ 8 ]. Two different types of HIT are recognized. The first, HIT type I (also called heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in the past), is a benign form not associated with an increased risk of thrombosis Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe, life-threatening drug reaction associated with a decrease in platelet count and a high risk of thrombosis caused by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4/heparin complexes. 3 The atypical clinical and therapeutic context of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a broader indication of curative anticoagulation, could lead to a higher prevalence of HIT What Is Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia? Ordinarily, heparin prevents clotting and does not affect the platelets, components of the blood that help form blood clots. Triggered by the immune system in response to heparin, HIT causes a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

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Thrombotic complications in three hemodialysis patients

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) occurs when a patient receives heparin, a blood-thinning medication, and subsequently forms antibodies against heparin and the platelet factor-4 (PF4) complex. Immune complexes of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies and platelet factor-4/heparin bind to the surface of platelets and cause platelet activation Although in most cases, drug-induced thrombocytopenia is associated with bleeding, life-threatening thromboembolic complications are common in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The identification of the compound responsible for thrombocytopenia is often challenging, because most hospitalized patients are taking multiple medications and have comorbidities that can also cause.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: clinical manifestations

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  2. Explain the potential complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Review the diagnosis and recommended treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Summarize the importance of an interprofessional approach to the identification and management of patients who are at risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
  3. Thrombocytopenia associated with heparin due to heparin-PF4 antibodies is referred to as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT may affect up to 5% of the patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH), but an accurate estimate is complicated by diagnostic difficulty
  4. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially devastating immune mediated adverse drug reaction caused by the emergence of antibodies that activate platelets in the presence of heparin. Despite thrombocytopenia, bleeding is rare; rather, HIT is strongly associated with thromboembolic complications involving both the arterial and venous systems
  5. The development of thrombocytopenia or a new thrombus in a patient receiving heparin or a low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) necessitates careful assessment for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an antibody-mediated complication of heparin therapy. 1 It is essential that HIT is accurately identified, since it is associated with a substantially increased thrombotic risk, and treatment.
  6. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: association of thrombotic complications with heparin-dependent IgG antibody that induces thromboxane synthesis and platelet aggregation Lancet , 2 ( 1982 ) , pp. 1246 - 124

What are the possible complications of heparin-induced

Heparin, a negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (3,000-30,000 Da), is an anticoagulant released by mast cells and basophils during the normal clotting process [].Heparin is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic diseases in medical and surgical patients [].Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is one of the most serious adverse events associated with this drug Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of 2 prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range. Blood

Douglas Jones, Peter Silberstein, in xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, 2007. Signs and Symptoms. The most common signs and symptoms of immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia are thrombotic complications.Venous thrombosis thrombosis is the most common complication, with many patients developing proximal deep vein thrombosis. . Pulmonary embolism contributes. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is characterized by a decrease in the platelet count of more than 50% from the highest platelet count value after the start of heparin, an onset 5 to 10 days. There is a potential risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in patients with severe COVID-19 who received therapeutic doses of anticoagulation, according to a new French series suggesting an incidence rate that is higher than would be anticipated in ICU patients Heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life‐threatening prothrombotic, immune‐mediated complication of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin therapy. HIT is characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia 5‐10 days after initial heparin exposure, detection of platelet‐activating anti‐platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies and an increased risk of venous and arterial. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a relatively common immune-mediated disorder with the potential for serious thromboembolic complications. It is associated with the use of unfractionated heparin

PPT - Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia PowerPoint

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): Review of

The prevalence of HIT may range from 0.1% to 5.0% in patients exposed to heparin, and varies significantly according to a number of host- and drug-related risk factors. Farley S, Cummings C, Heuser W, et al. Prevalence and overtesting of true heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a 591-bed tertiary care, teaching hospital HEPARIN-INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA SUMMARY Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a known complication of heparin exposure. The 4Ts scoring system is a screening tool that accurately rules out HIT. Treatment should last for at least 4 weeks if no thrombotic complications hav Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an antibody-mediated adverse drug reaction that can lead to devastating thromboembolic complications, including pulmonary embolism, ischemic limb necrosis necessitating limb amputation, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke Introduction Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is by far the most relevant pathological association of it encountered by clinicians. It is an immune-mediated phenomenon caused by antibodies directed against complexes of heparin molecules and platelet factor 4 (PF4). HIT is a considerable side effect in patients of acute coronary syndromes (ACS)

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: Pathophysiology and

Patients who develop heparin-induced skin lesions, related to the formation of HIT-IgG and associated in 20 to 30% of cases with thrombocytopenia, are at increased risk of thrombosis, particularly arterial thrombosis.[32,33] At the time when HIT diagnosis was often delayed, thrombotic complications of HIT produced severe morbidity and mortality rates (61 and 22.5%, respectively) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immunoglobulin-mediated adverse drug reaction associated with a high risk of thrombotic complications. The pathogenic antibody, usually immunoglobulin (Ig) G (HIT-IgG), recognises a multimolecular complex of heparin and platelet factor 4, resulting in platelet activation via platelet Fc receptors Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT; formerly called type 2 HIT) is an immune-mediated prothrombotic disorder characterized by a sudden drop in platelet count (typically > 50% from baseline) in a.. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a major health problem, especially in cardiac surgery theaters, cardiac catheterization labs, and intensive care units. Some patients with HIT develop serious thrombotic complications like limb ischemia and gangrene, while others may not develop such complications and have only mild thrombocytopenia Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia • Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is characterized by a decrease in the platelet count of more than 50% from the highest platelet count value after the start of heparin, an onset 5 to 10 days after the start of heparin, hypercoagulability, and the presence of heparin dependent, platelet activating IgG antibodies

Heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious complication with a prothrombotic basis. Antibodies to platelet factor 4 and heparin facilitate a profound and rapid decrease the platelet count and a risk of serious thrombosis Summary. Heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia is one of the most common and important immunological complications of drug therapy. Most patients with heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia have isolated thrombocytopenia, which by itself seldom causes serious morbidity Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic disease where antibodies against the molecular complex of heparin-to-platelet factor 4 (PF4/H) interact with platelet receptors to promote platelet activation, aggregation, and removal from circulation [1, 2•].PF4 is secreted by platelet granules or displaced from the endothelium Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) If short-term complications can be overcome and the underlying disorder is amenable to therapy, the long term outlook is favorable

Summary. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), next to bleeding complications, is the most important side-effect of heparin therapy in cardiac patients and the most frequently found thrombocytopenia induced by medication ASH has developed a series of brief, evidence-based pocket guides to help physicians provide quality care to patients. The guides cover such topics as thrombocytopenia in pregnancy, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, red blood cell transfusion, anticoagulant dosing and management, and von Willebrand disease


SUMMARY: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that approximately 1-2 per 1000 individuals develop Deep Vein Thrombosis/Pulmonary Embolism (PE) each year in the United States, resulting in 60,000-100,000 deaths. Venous ThromboEmbolism (VTE) is the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic disorder caused. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an autoimmune thrombotic disorder caused by immune complexes containing platelet factor 4 (PF4), antibodies to PF4 and heparin or cellular. Test. The 4Ts score is commonly used to predict the clinical probability of HIT. Lo G, Juhl D, Warkentin T, et al. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T's) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings The etiology of HIT is unknown. The rapid production of IgG antibodies (median of 4 days) without initial IgM antibody production suggests a secondary immune response, despite the absence of previous exposure to heparin in the majority of patients who develop HIT. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Moore JC, et al. Studies of the immune response in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia


[Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia as a complication of

One complication of heparin therapy is Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia, where patients will develop coagulopathies due to an immune response to heparin HIT (Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia) Complications in Cancer Patients. Abstract & Commentary. Synopsis: In a retrospective review from the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, among patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, those who had underlying malignancy were found to have a greater risk for thrombotic events when compared to those without malignant disease

Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia with Thrombosis (HITT) HIT occurs in 3 to 5 percent of patients who receive intravenous unfractionated heparin compared to the 0.5 percent incidence rate with subcutaneous LMWH, catheter flushes, and even the minuscule amounts of heparin that leach from coated catheters Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT): A Case Study Catherine E Newkirk ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia thrombotic complications can be significantly reduced. CASE HISTORY A 70year- -old male in good health arrived in his local Emergency Room with a table saw injury to his righ PubMed journal article: Preventing complications in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Alternative anticoagulants are improving patient outcomes. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Androi

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) Syndrome that occurs in ~1-5% of all heparin-exposed patients Immune-mediated Thrombotic complications can be fatal Monocyte activation via FcγRIIA also appears to contribute to increased thrombotic potential. Thrombosis (29 079 [29·8%; SE 0·4] of 97 566) and bleeding (6044 [6·2%; 0·2] of 97 566) were common complications in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and 1446 (23·9%; 1·2) of 6044 patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia who had haemorrhage died. 742 (0·76%; SE 0·06) of 97 566 patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia discharges underwent amputations compared with 173 043. BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) are potentially devastating paradoxical side effects of heparin therapy. We explored the evaluation, management, and clinical consequences of thrombocytopenia occurring during heparin therapy in diverse clinical settings. METHODS: CATCH was a prospective observational study that enrolled 3,536 patients in 48 US hospitals Thrombotic thrombocytopenia during COVID-19: An autoimmune reaction induced by SARS-CoV-2? The high incidence of thrombotic and thromboembolic events during severe COVID-19 results in the frequent administration of heparin in affected patients [].Thrombosis can develop in unusual locations such as cerebral venous sinuses [].When thrombocytopenia develops in this setting, heparin-induced. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an antibody-mediated complication of heparin treatment that can result in a number of devastating thrombotic complications. Given the common use of heparin for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in patients with burns, we reviewed the incidence and complications of HIT in our burn center. We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with.

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) If not recognized and treated, patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia are at risk of developing serious complications, such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction. Unfortunately,. Endothelial antigen assembly leads to thrombotic complications in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Vincent Hayes, , Lubica Rauova, Mortimer Poncz Published February 20, 2017 Citation Information: J Clin Invest. 2017; 127(3) :1090-1098 Despite the existence of several sensitive functional and antigen assays used for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an additional assessment of the patient's hemostatic status, in order to predict the thromboti Eleven patients in whom thrombocytopenia developed during heparin therapy were studied. Six patients (group 1) had severe thrombocytopenia with delayed onset and five of these patients had thromboembolic complications. A serum factor which induced heparin-dependent thromboxane B2 synthesis, 14C-serotonin release, and platelet aggregation was found in all patients in group 1

What is HIT? Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially fatal antibody-mediated adverse reaction that occurs in up to 5% of patients exposed to heparin 1,2.A mortality rate of 2-20% has been reported 1.. Thrombocytopenia (a platelet count of <150 x 10 9 /l or a ≥ 50% reduction in platelets) occurs in >90% of patients with HIT 3.In 60% of cases, thrombocytopenia occurs 5 to 10. They are characterized by thrombocytopenia, similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, but in the absence of heparin and platelet factor 4 antibodies. In a group of 23 patients, 13 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 5 had pulmonary embolism, the median age was 46 years, the age range was 21-77 years, and the median time after vaccination was 12 days (range 6 -twenty four)

Platelet analysis in laboratory hematology

Management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: systematic

[Cerebrovascular complications of immunologically mediated

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia answers are found in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated life-threatening complication. It is an adverse drug reaction caused by the generation of antibodies that activates platelet factor 4(PF-4) in the presence of heparin. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) can lead to many thromboembolic complications, s..

↑ Greinacher A, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Kwasny H, Luz M. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia with thromboembolic complications: meta-analysis of 2 prospective trials to assess the value of parenteral treatment with lepirudin and its therapeutic aPTT range Hoh BL, Aghi M, Pryor JC, Ogilvy CS (2005) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Type II in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: incidence and complications. Neurosurgery 57: 243-248. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Horsewood P, Simpson PJ, Moore JC, et al. (2000) Impact of the patient population on the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Start studying Heparin induced THrombocytopenia. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (HITT) Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) of a pro-thrombotic type (e.g. associated with malignancy or sepsis) Acute DIC/liver necrosis/limb necrosis syndrome: Shock liver causes depletion of protein C and anti-thrombin, with subsequent microvascular thrombosis of extremities.

Neurological disorders in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Abstract. Reactions 752 - 22 May 1999 Neurological disorders in heparin- induced thrombocytopenia Neurological complications occurred in 9.5% of patients diagnosed with immune-mediated heparin- induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), according to the results of a retrospective study conducted in Germany. 105 patients were identified from. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) dabigatran-related complications, and outcome. Patients with chronic kidney disease, hepatic impairment, mechanical heart valves, active bleeding, and extremes of weights (<50 and >120 kg) were excluded from the study Jun 02, 2021 (MARKITWIRED via COMTEX) -- Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated life-threatening complication. It is an adverse drug..

Heparin-induced platelet aggregation vs platelet factor 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-thrombosis. Am J Clin Pathol . 1997 Jul. 108(1):78-82. [Medline] Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug effect that occurs in 0.1-5% of heparin treated patients. Management of acute HIT currently involves (1) cessation of heparin exposure, and (2) inhibition of coagulation with an anticoagulant other than heparin Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Theodore E. Warkentin Andreas Greinacher Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction caused by heparin-dependent, platelet-activating immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies that recognize complexes of platelet factor 4 (PF4) bound to heparin.1, 2, 3 HIT represents a strong, independent risk factor for venous and arterial.

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia presents as an underdiagnosed condition with life threatening thrombotic complications. The incidence in cardiac surgery patients is dependent on several factors and appeared to b Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med. vol. 332. 1995 May 18. pp. 1330-5 Thrombosis complications (termed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis) develop in 20 to 50 percent of patients and may affect arterial and venous systems, even after heparin is. Background . Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a transient, antibody-mediated thrombocytopenia syndrome that usually follows exposure to unfractioned heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). In contrast to other pathological conditions which lead to thrombocytopenia and bleeding complications, HIT results in a paradoxical prothrombotic state Serious limband life-threatening thromboembolic complications may result from immune-mediated, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II. The authors describe three such cases associated with devastating outcomes. The clinical diagnosis of HIT II was based on (1).

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